Rendering is a final output of the image or a video by means of computer program. A scene file contains objects with geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting, and sharing information virtual or custom scene. The data contained composite file is then passed to a rendering program to be processed and final output.
Different rendering software have different setting to determine how the source colors are adjusted. Choosing a rendering system depends on the graphical content of documents and on the profiles used to specify color spaces. Some objects produce identical results for different rendering system.
There are two types of rendering one is real time rendering and offline rendering. Real time rendering is used most prominently in gaming and interactive graphics, where images must be computed from 3D information at an incredibly rapid pace.
Offline rendering Offline rendering is used in situations where speed is less of an issue, with calculations typically performed using multi-core CPUs rather than dedicated graphics hardware. The two common render engine are mental ray and v ray.
In Australia most of the graphics designers are use photo shop for 2D image and Adobe after effects for 3D or movie rendering. Some of the countries uses nuke like other rendering systems.